N°1: When was the Declaration of the Human right approved?
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a milestone document in the history of human rights. Drafted by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris 1948.
N°2: For the Italian Constitution the Association among people is
- Possible only if authorized
- Dangerous for the democratic order
I citizens have the right to associate freely, without authorization, for purposes that are not forbidden to individuals by criminal law. Secret associations and associations which pursue political purposes, even indirectly, through military organizations, are prohibited.
N°3: When is the Human Right’s day?
- 10 December
- 25 April
- 9 November
- 22 April
Human Rights Day is observed every year on 10 December – the day on which the United Nations General Assembly adopted, in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
N°4: Who are the “Blue Helmets”?
- The UN Peacekeeping forces
- The armed forces of the UN
- American Military
- Italian volunteers
The Blues Helmets are the UN peacekeeping forces that include soldiers, police officers, and local civilian personnel; the forces are multinational: since 1948, 130 nations have provided personnel to them. They can be deployed both to implement and monitor peacekeeping agreements in every part of the globo.
N°5: Which of these is not a sustainable development goal?
- Gender equality
- Freedom of expression
- Quality education
- Reduced inequality
The sustainable development goals are 17 and includes Gender Equality, Quality education and reduced inequality; while the freedom of expression is not a sustainable goals but an inviolable human right enshrined by the Declaration of Human Right.
N°6: What could be an expression of the gender equality?
- Men and women paid the same way for the same job
- Men and women have the same rights
- Men can obtain the same free and paid months of the women when they become fathers
- All of these are correct
Gender equality is the state in which there is a free access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender.
We often talked about the need for the women to be involved in a more equal world relating their aspirations and needs equally, because historically they were more discriminated; but both gender have yet to fight to reach the equality and they have to do this together.
N°7: How many are the rights of the Universal Declaration of Human rights?
The Declaration consists of a preamble and 30 articles establishing the individual, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of each person. The text sets out individual rights; rights of the individual towards the community; fundamental freedoms (freedom of thought; opinion, religion and conscience, word) and individual’s economic, social and cultural rights.
N°8: What does “peace” means?
- The rejection of weapons of mass destruction.
- The absence of conflict plus the existence of dialogue, understanding and cooperation.
- The absence of conflict.
- The just existence of dialogue, understanding and cooperation
According to the preamble of the Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace adopted by the UN General Assembly, peace “not only is the absence of conflict, but also requires a positive, dynamic participatory process where dialogue is encouraged and conflicts are solved in a spirit of mutual understanding and cooperation”.
N°9: What is the United Nations?
- An European institution
- An Italian institution
- An international institution
- An American institution
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization born to maintain the international peace in the world. Actually, every nation on the planet is part of the UN. The UNs is not a world government and does not legislate. They provide to help resolve international conflicts and formulate appropriate policies on issues of common interest.
N°10: For the Italian Constitution how is the vote?
- Personal and public
- Personal, private and free
According to Italian law, voting is personal and equal, free and secret. Secrecy is used to avoid control over the voter. Its exercise is a civic duty but not an obligation. The exercise of this right can only be restricted only in cases provided by law.
N°11: Which is the UN Entity created in order to promote and protect the human rights?
- The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
- The Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees and Asylum seekers
- International Monetary Fund
- The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights has lead responsibility in the UN system for the promotion and protection of human rights. The office supports the human rights components of peacekeeping missions in several countries and has many country and regional offices and centers
N°12: How many are the sustainable development goals?
The sustainable development goal, adopted in 2015 provides a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future: they are 17 and recognize that ending poverty must go hand-in-hand with strategies that build economic growth and address a range of social needs including education, health, social protection, and job opportunities, while tackling climate change and environmental protection.
N°13: What is the duration of the military service in Cyprus?
- 24 months
- 12 months
- 14 months
- 16 months
Military service in the Cypriot National Guard is mandatory for all male citizens of the Republic of Cyprus, as well as any male non-citizens born of a parent of Greek Cypriot descent for 14 months.
N°14: Cyprus’s lowest score in gender equality is in the domain of…?
- Health (health satisfaction, access to health care)
- Power (political power)
- Work (participation in employment)
- Knowledge (education)
Cyprus’s score in the domain of power is 28.2/100. Women are still severely underrepresented in Government. Only 38% of judges are women and only 20.8% of senior level civil servants. On a more positive note, Cyprus now has three women ministers (out of eleven posts) and two women were elected as members of the European Parliament in June 2009.
N°15: Cyprus’s highest score in gender equality is in the domain of…?
- Health (health satisfaction, access to health care)
- Power (political power)
- Knowledge (education)
- Time (care activities, social activities)
Cyprus’s score in the domain of health is 88.4, with progress of 2.6 points since 2005 (+ 0.2 points since 2015). This change is driven by increasing gender equality in health status and improvements in access to health services. About 77 % of women and 79 % of men perceive their health as good.
N°16: What is the role of the National Action Plan on the Prevention and Handling of Family Violence (2008-2013)?
- To monitor the extent of violence in the family in Cyprus
- To raise awareness and sensitize the public as well as relevant professionals
- To promote services dealing with all aspects of the problem and specifically for support and protection of victims
- All of the above
The National Action Plan Equality between Men and Women (2007-2013) includes violence against women among its main priorities. It also makes reference to all forms of violence against women including domestic violence, trafficking in women, sexual harassment in the workplace, and rape and sexual assault. Although it recognizes the need for actions to address violence against women belonging to ethnic and other minorities there are no concrete actions foreseen to address this group.
N°17: As an EU citizen, you have the right to study at any EU country.
- It is up to the citizen of each Member State
- Yes, but higher tuition will be paid
You have the right to live in the EU country where you are studying for the duration of your studies if you are enrolled in an approved educational establishment, have sufficient income, from any source, to live without needing income support and have comprehensive health insurance cover there. You could lose your right to stay in the country if you finish your studies and cannot prove you are working or have sufficient resources to support yourself.
N°18: Which laws are related to gender equality?
- The Maternity Protection Law
- The Parental Leave and Leave on Grounds of Force Majeure Law
- The Violence in the Family (Prevention and Protection of Victims) Law
- All of the above
An impressive number of legislative measures relating to gender equality have been passed in the last decade. These include the Equal Treatment of Men and Women in Employment and Vocational Training Law, the Equal Pay Between Men and Women for the Same Work or for Work of Equal Value Law, the Maternity Protection Law, the Parental Leave and Leave on Grounds of Force Majeure Law, the Equal Treatment of Men and Women in Professional Social Insurance Schemes Law, the Equal Treatment of Men and Women (Access to and Supply of Good and Services) Law, the Violence in the Family (Prevention and Protection of Victims) Law, the Combating of Trafficking and Exploitation of Human Beings and the Protection of Victims Law, among others.
N°19: The rights of EU citizens are protected by:
- The competent authority of each country
- The Charter of Fundamental Rights
- The European Parliament
- The European Commissioner
The authorities of EU countries are bound to comply with the Charter of Fundamental Rights only when implementing EU law. Fundamental rights are protected by your country’s constitution.
N°20: European citizens have the right to reside freely anywhere in Europe?
- Under certain conditions
- Only in some European countries
As an EU citizen, you have the right to move to any EU country to live, work, study, look for a job or retire. You can stay in another EU country for up to 3 months without registering there but you may need to report your presence. The only requirement is to hold a valid national identity card or passport.
N°21: What is the main objective of the European Defense Agency?
- Improving the military capabilities of the Member States
- A Europe without armies
- The expansion of Europe’s territorial sovereignty
- The beginning of World War III
The European Defence Agency, within the overall mission set out in the before-mentioned Council decision, has three main missions: 1) supporting the development of defence capabilities and military cooperation among the European Union Member States; 2) stimulating defence Reserach and Technology (R&T) and strengthening the European defence industry, 3) acting as a military interface to EU policies.
N°22: According to the Maastricht Treaty, every citizen of the Union, regardless of nationality, has the right to:
- To vote and be a candidate in the EU country in which he lives.
- Protection of his personal data
- Fair trial, political or criminal
- Freedom of Expression
It enabled people to run for local office and for European Parliament elections in the EU country they lived in, regardless of nationality.
N°23: The European Court of Human Rights is based in:
- In Brussels
- In Luxembourg
- In Frankfurt
- In Strasbourg
The European Court of Human Rights is the court of law of the Council of Europe. It is based in Strasbourg, France.
N°24: WHEN DO WE CELEBRATE CHILDREN’S HUMAN RIGHTS?
- 20th of November
- 2nd of June
- 20th of September
- 2nd of December
November 20th, the UN General Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child.
N°25: The Greek constitution protects all human rights because it…?
- Contains articles about the Right to life, Liberty, Personal Security and freedom from slavery
- Contains articles about the Right to Equality, Right to recognition as a person before the Law
- Contains articles about freedom from poverty, freedom of expression and opinion
- all the above
The Greek Constitution contains a comprehensive set of civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights and freedoms, similar to those incorporated in the most important international and regional human rights treaties such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).
N°26: When was slavery officially abolished in Greece?
N°27: Who put Athens on the road to democracy?
- none of the above
Solon’s legislation known as the Solonian Constitution that was created in the early 6th century BC put the foundation for democracy. Solon promulgated a code of laws embracing the whole of public and private life, the salutary effects of which lasted long after the end of his constitution. Under Solon’s reforms, all debts were abolished and all debt-slaves were freed.
N°28: The death penalty has been abolished by all EU MS expect from….?
- none of the above
All EU Member States have abolished the death penalty. They are bound by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), particularly its Article 2, which states that ‘Everyone’s right to life shall be protected by law’, and by its Protocols No 6 and No 13.
N°29: Why do EU MS need to protect the rights of the child?
- they don’t have the right and autonomy to make decisions on their own
- they cannot protect themselves, vulnerability
- they have specific needs, for education, nutrition, protection, other
- all the above
According to the ‘Convention on the Rights of the Child’ (CRC) that has been ratified by all EU MS, incl. Greece, children rights are described as the “3 Ps”: Provision, Protection, and Participation
Provision: Children have the right to an adequate standard of living, health care, education and services, and to play and recreation. These include a balanced diet, a warm bed to sleep in, and access to schooling.
Protection: Children have the right to protection from abuse, neglect, exploitation and discrimination. This includes the right to safe places for children to play; constructive child rearing behavior, and acknowledgment of the evolving capacities of children.
Participation: Children have the right to participate in communities and have programs and services for themselves. This includes children’s involvement in libraries and community programs, youth voice activities, and involving children as decision-makers.
N°30: Minority groups, such as the Mulsim minority in Thrace, Greece have the same human rights like others in the EU MS?
- it depends on the country and their legislation
- not the same
- the same
- I don’t know
According to the Council of Europe, human rights are universal, that is, they are the same for all human beings in every country. They are inalienable, indivisible and interdependent, that is, they cannot be taken away – ever; all rights are equally important and they are complementary, for instance the right to participate in government and in free elections depends on freedom of speech.
N°31: On 28 May 1952, which significant milestone was achieved toward gender equality in Greece?
- women gained the right to get a divorce
- women gained the right to vote
- women gained the right to work
- women gained the right to wear pants
On 28 May 1952, 61 years ago, Greek women obtained the right to vote and stand as candidates in legislative and municipal elections. For decades and after many struggles, women managed to obtain the right to vote in elections long after many European countries.
N°32: In the 21st century, which is still the most persisting obstacle in achieving gender equality in Europe and globally?
- low participation in decision making
- lack of access in resources and services
- uneven access to education
- the gender pay gap
The gender pay gap or gender wage gap is the average difference between the remuneration for men and women who are working. Globally, women are generally paid less even if they do the same work with men and have the same qualifications. According to global estimations, it might take more than 200 years to close the gender pay gap. In the EU, women are less present in the labour market than men. The gender employment gap stood at 11.7% in 2019, with 67.3 % of women across the EU being employed compared to 79% of men (EU27 data).
N°33: When was the first time in Europe that hostilities were postponed for an event to happen?
- During the Olympic Games in Ancient Olympia
- During Christmas in Medieval Times
- During the Dionysia festival in Ancient Athens
- During the Saturnalia festival in Rome
The ancient Olympic Games were a series of athletic competitions among representatives of city-states and one of the Panhellenic Games of ancient Greece. They were held in honor of God Zeus, and the Greeks gave them a mythological origin. The first Olympics were hosted in Olympia around 776 BC. They continue to be the most prestigious athletics competition worldwide, being conducted every 4 years. During the games all military conflicts ceased so that athletes could travel safely from their hometown to Olympia. The olympic spirit of fair play and peace is still considered as the pillar of modern European civilization.
N°34: The first feminist who fought for women rights in Greece was …
- Kallirhoe Parren (1861-1940)
- Eugénie Niboyet (1796-1883)
- Jeanne Deroin (1805-1894)
- Karoline Perin (1808-1888
Kallirhoe Siganou-Parren (Crete, 1861–Athens, 1940) was a journalist and writer in the late 19th and early 20th century. She launched the feminist movement in Greece with the founding of the newspaper “Ephemeris ton kyrion” (Ladies’ Journal) in 1887. Thanks to her unique communication skills, she convinced all the famous female writers of her time to contribute to her paper. In 1900 she achieved state protection over children and women’s working conditions. She also served as president of the Greek Chapter of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom in the interwar period. She fought for educational and employment opportunities and she laid the foundations for gender equality in Greece and furthermore in Europe.
N°35: According to Protagoras’ story in Plato’s Protagoras, Zeus feared the obliteration of human beings and arranged for Hermes to send:
- a. shame and justice to all people.
- equality to all people.
- freedom of the seas to all people.
- freedom of trade to all people.
According to Protagoras’ story, the gods molded mortals within the earth. They then appointed Prometheus and Epimetheus to equip each mortal being with its respective powers, but Epimetheus persuaded Prometheus to allow him alone to distribute these qualities. When Epimetheus came to human beings, however, he realized that he had used up all the powers on the other animals and was at a loss as to what to do. Prometheus inspected Epimetheus’ work and found that the human being alone had no physical defenses. Nevertheless, the appointed time had come for human beings to emerge into the world. Therefore, Prometheus stole from the Hephaestus and Athena the τέχναι and fire, in order to help human beings to survive. Men did not yet have the political art. Human beings began to erect altars and images of gods, to speak, build houses, make clothing, and till the soil; but because they were scattered, at first wild beasts destroyed them. Humans tried to come together in cities for protection but treated one another unjustly because they lacked the political art. Zeus feared the obliteration of human beings and arranged for Hermes to send shame (αἰδώς) and justice (δίκη) to all people.
N°36: Equality between women and men is one of the fundamental values of the European Union enshrined in the EU Treaties. The Charter of the United Nations, was the first international agreement to reaffirm the principle of equality between women and men. When it was voted?
- in 1945
- in 1955
- in 1965
- in 1975
“Equality between women and men is one of the fundamental values of the European Union enshrined in our Treaties,” said a joint statement in Brussels on the occasion of International Women’s Day 2018, signed by First Vice President Frans Timmermans.The Charter of the United Nations, signed in 1945, was the first international agreement to reaffirm the principle of equality between women and men.
N°37: Which of the following options is not one of the three major social classes in Austrian society, in the early 1800s?
Austrian society was traditionally highly stratified, with well-defined social distinctions, and major social classes consist of aristocrats, citizens and peasant-farmers, and 1781 Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II has already abolished serfdom in the Austrian Habsburg dominions and it wasn’t social class.
N°38: When did Austria become the member of the United Nations?
- 14 December 1955
- 17 April 1988
- 23 June 1990
- 5 February
Austria has established itself as an engaged UN Member State on 14 December 1955 as its 70th member.
N°39: Which one of the following countries is not permanent member of United Nations Security Council?
- Russian Federation
- The United Kingdom
The Council is composed of 15 Members and five of them are permanent members; China, France, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States.
N°40: When did Austria start coordinating the “Group of Friends of the Rule of Law’’ in New York, an informal network of around 50 UN Member States from all regional groups?
Austria coordinates the “Group of Friends of the Rule of Law “in New York, an informal network of around 50 UN Member States from all regional groups. The group meets to discuss various issues, and to work together to promote strengthening and coherence of UN rule of law activities.
N°41: When was the United Nations Human Rights Council established?
The UNHRC is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations system made up of 47 States responsible for the promotion and protection of all human rights around the globe. The UNHRC investigates allegations of breaches of human rights in United Nations member states, and addresses important thematic human rights issues such as freedom of association and assembly, freedom of expression, freedom of belief and religion, women’s rights, LGBT rights, and the rights of racial and ethnic minorities
N°42: Which one(s) of the following priorities is/are the priority/ies of the Austrian Human Rights Policy for the period 2019-2021?
- Women’s Rights
- Children’s Rights
- Freedom of Religion
- All options
As a mwmbwr of the UN Human Rights Council for the period 2019-2021, Austria declared its focus to be on: women’s rights, childrn´s rights, human trafficking, safety of journalists, defenders of human rights, fight against racism, minority rights, freedom of religion and human rights education.
N°43: When was Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights?
- 25 June 1993
- 21 June 1995
- 25 July 1993
- 25 June 1995
The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, also known as VDPA, is a human rights declaration adopted by consensus at the World Conference on Human Rights on 25 June 1993 in Vienna, Austria.
N°44: Which countries have not ratified the Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees from 1967??
- Congo and Monaco
- Turkey and Madagascar
- Austria and Norway
- Estonia and Serbia
The Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees is a key treaty in international refugee law. It entered into force on 4 October 1967, and 146 countries are parties. The 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees had restricted refugee status to those whose circumstances had come about “as a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951”, also referring to “events occurring in Europe” or “events occurring in Europe or elsewhere”, the 1967 Protocol removed both the temporal and geographic restrictions. Turkey retained the restriction to geographical location, and Madagascar has not ratified it altogether.
N°45: When was the first woman head of a parliamentary body appointed?
Olga Rudel-Zeynek (Christian Social Party) becomes the first president of the Austrian Federal Council, the Austrian senate. She is thus the first woman globally to head a parliamentary body.
N°46: What was the new focus introduced in human rights by the UN Securty Council resolution 1325 from 200?
It is the first resolution by the United Nations (UN) that specifically addresses the special impact of conflict on women and that stresses the significant and active role of women in all efforts aimed at promoting peace – from peace negotiations to the rebuilding of destroyed societies.
N°47: How does Austria rank in the EU on the Gender Equality Index 2019?
With 65.3 out of 100 points, Austria ranks 13th in the EU on the Gender Equality Index 2019
N°48: When was the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) ratified by Austria?
Starting with the International Year of Women in 1975, the United Nations began to intensively discuss the situation of women around the world. The greatest achievement of the decade was the adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in 1978. Austria ratified the Convention in 1982.
N°49: Before being the ninth Secretary-General of the United Nations, António Guterres served as United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees for…
- 4 years
- 6 years
- 8 years
- 10 years
António Guterres took the place of Secretary-General of the United Nations on 1 January 2017 and prior to it, he served as United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees from June 2005 to December 2015. Before joining the United Nations Human Rights Council, António Guterres spent more than 20 years in government and public service in representation of Portugal.
Digital source: https://www.un.org/sg/en/content/sg/biography
Full experience: https://youtu.be/iKcJY5ks9vE
N°50: In the Global Peace Index 2020, Portugal keeps the…
- 3rd place of the world raking and 1st of the European Union
- 6th place of the world raking and 5th of the European Union
- 10th place of the world raking and 5th of the European Union
- 15th place of the world raking and 10th of the European Union
Portugal keeps the 3rd place in the Global Peace Index, just behind Iceland and New Zealand, among 163 independent states and territories. According to the report of the Institute for Economics & Peace, Portugal ranks 1st place among the countries of the European Union. In 2014, Portugal ranked 18th, having moved up to 3rd in 2019.
Full experience: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bd8YzHHwTh4
N°51: Portugal played a very important role in achieving the independence of Timor-Leste, acquired in …
After two decades of Indonesian occupation, Timor-Leste became independent on 20 May 2002, Portugal, a former colonizing power in the territory, played an important role in obtaining this status by the Timorese.
Digital source: http://timor-leste.gov.tl/?p=29&lang=en
Full experience: https://ensina.rtp.pt/artigo/independencia-de-timor-leste
N°52: Who was Aristides de Sousa Mendes?
- Portuguese doctor that fought for access to health care
- Portuguese politician and consul that rescued prisoners, namely Jews, from German Nazi
- Portuguese layer that defended the strengthen of the human rights in Portugal
- None of the mentioned above
Aristides de Sousa Mendes was a Portuguese consul-general in the French city of Bordeaux, he defied the orders of António de Oliveira Salazar’s Estado Novo regime, issuing visas and passports to an undetermined number of refugees fleeing Nazi Germany, including Jews. Sousa Mendes had saved many thousands of refugees.
Full experience: https://youtu.be/-ZkycI-rooM
N°53: The National Commission for Human Rights (CNDH) was created by the Portuguese Government in:
- April 2008
- April 2009
- April 2010
- April 2011
The decision to create the Portuguese National Human Rights Committee (PNHRC) comes from the commitment of the Portuguese Government before the United Nations Human Rights Council, in Geneva, which took place on 8th December 2009. The Portuguese National Human Rights Committee, created by Resolution of the Council of Ministers no. 27/2010, of April 8, is an interministerial coordination body, which aims to implement an integrated approach to Human Rights and an agreed plan of action for public and private entities.
Digital source: https://direitoshumanos.mne.gov.pt/en/
N°54: Since 1974, how many women were Prime Minister in Portugal?
Maria de Lourdes Pintassilgo was the first and to date only woman to serve as Prime Minister of Portugal, and the second woman to serve as Prime Minister in Western Europe, after Margaret Thatcher. In 1979 she was called on by General António Ramalho Eanes, the President of Portugal, to become Prime Minister. Pintasilgo was sworn in as the Prime Minister of the Portuguese caretaker government on 1 August 1979 with the term of three months in office. During her time in office she pushed to modernize the out-dated social welfare system. She left her mark by making social security universal and improving health care, education, and labor legislation in Portugal.
Digital source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_de_Lourdes_Pintasilgo
Full experience: https://youtu.be/qidUKLXMsVo
N°55: In what year did Portugal abolish capital punishment?
Portugal was one of the first countries to inscribe a law to abolish the death penalty to civil crimes in its legal system. The death penalty suffered its first reform in Portugal in 1852 when it was abolished for political crimes. This was followed in 1867 when civil crimes were no longer subject to capital punishment.
Digital source; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_punishment_in_Portugal
N°56: Violence against women in Portugal became a public crime…
- 10 years ago
- 20 years ago
- 30 years ago
- 40 years ago
N°57: Portugal was one of the 21 EU member states ratifying, in October 2020, the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women, also known as…
- Lisbon Recognition Convention
- Istanbul Convention
- Convention on the Future of Europe
- Treaty on European Union
The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women (‘Istanbul Convention’), which came into force in 2014, is the first legally binding international instrument on preventing and combating violence against women and girls at international level. It establishes a comprehensive framework of legal and policy measures for preventing such violence, supporting victims and punishing perpetrators. As of October 2020, it has been signed by all EU Member States, and ratified by 21 (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden).
Full experience: https://vimeo.com/405724356
N°58: The female illiteracy in Portugal in 1970 was of…
The Constitution of 1976, which established equality for women and men at all levels, was critical to promote an equal participation of girls and boys throughout compulsory education in Portugal, having had impact in the decrease of the rate of female illiteracy from 31% in 1970 to 6.8% in 2011.
N°59: Since 2009, fathers and mothers in Portugal are entitled to almost the same care leave (caring for children, including an adopted or stepchild, for the elderly and next of kin, like spouses or partners).
According to the Decree-Law 91/2009, fathers and mothers are entitled to almost the same care leave (caring for children, including an adopted or step child, for the elderly and next of kin, like spouses or partners). Maternity and paternity leaves were replaced by parental leave that may have different lengths, different holders and payment rates depending on whether it is enjoyed exclusively by the mother, or the father, or both (shared leave).
Digital source: http://cite.gov.pt/asstscite/downloads/publics/BA3113937ENC.pdf
N°60: n 1980, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights international entered into force in Portugal.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, a multilateral treaty adopted by United Nations General Assembly, entered into force on 23 March 1976. The covenant commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial. Portugal signed the covenant on 7 October 1976, which entered into force on 15 June 1978.
Full experience: https://youtu.be/-osVx0DiK0I