N°1: Which is the planet closest to the sun?
Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun; Venus is the second closest planet to the Sun and Earth is the third closest planet to the Sun. The distance of Mercury to the Sun is actually an average. Mercury follows an elliptical orbit around the Sun. Sometimes it’s much closer, and other times it’s much further
N°2: Who discovered the gravity?
- Galileo Galilei
The father of the Gravity theory is the English mathematic, astronomer and physicist Isaac Newton.
He discovered gravity in 1666 with a little help from an apple tree in his childhood home; in fact, the legend wants that he started to ask himself why everything fell down seeing an apple fell down the tree.
N°3: How many sex chromosomes are there in the humans?
A sex chromosome is a type of chromosome that participates in sex determination. Humans and most other mammals have two sex chromosomes, the X and the Y; females have two X chromosomes in their cells, while males have both X and a Y chromosomes in their cells
N°4: The word “ecology” come from a Greek word “oikos”. What does it mean?
- Living Beings
The word ecology was coined by the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel, who applied the term oekologie to the “relation of the animal both to its organic as well as its inorganic environment.” The word comes from the Greek oikos, meaning “household,” “home,” or “place to live.”
N°5: What is the constellation that, according the story, is a Greek queen?
- Great Bear
- Little Bear
The constellation represent the queen Cassiopeia and the legend wants that she was punished by Zeus for her vanity and for this reason she was turn down in the sky. In fact, the stars of the constellation are shaped like the letter W who would be the chair in which she’s sit in an upside-down position.
N°6: What is the original source of energy?
The energy of the sun is the original source of most of the energy found on earth. The vast majority of energy originates from the sun; energy is not recycled in ecosystems and each ecosystem requires a continuous input of energy to sustain it and the most input is the sun.
N°7: What is the name of the woman who inspired the movement “Friday for future” against the climatic change?
- Isabel Allende
- Michelle Obama
- Greta Thunberg
- Nilde Iotti
Greta Thunberg is a young Swedish woman became famous in 2018 for organizing a school strike in front of the Swedish Parliament against the climatic change. Since this time she was an inspiration for millions of students that today, thanks to “Friday for Future”, fight for a healthier world.
N°8: What was the figure that Pythagoras took in consideration for his theorem?
- Isosceles triangle
- A scalene triangle in relation with a right triangle
- A right triangle
The Pythagorean Theorem is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. It states that the area of the square whose side is the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares on the other two sides.
N°9: Who was Rita Levi Montalcini?
- The first woman President of the Italian Republic
- The first Italian woman to go to the moon
- An Italian Nobel
- An actress who won the Oscar
Rita Levi-Montalcini was an Italian scientist. Although she began her scientific career in danger, as a Jew in Fascist Italy, she ended in triumph with the discovered of a nerve growth factor who allow her to win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. She was also nominated Senator for Life and she served her Country until her death.
N°10: What is the animal that have the longer gestation period?
Elephants have the longest gestation period of all mammals. The gentle giants’ pregnancies last for more than a year and a half; the average gestation period of an elephant is about 640 to 660 days, or roughly 95 weeks; the elephants usually only carry one baby at a time, one to two percent of elephant births produce twin
N°11: What is the biggest volcano in Italy?
- Mount Kronio
Mount Etna, located near Catania, in the east of the Sicily, is not only the biggest volcano in Italy, but also the highest active volcano in Europe (3,350 meters), and is one of the most active in the world. It has a constant state of activity giving amazing eruptions.
N°12: Which is the animal most affected by climate change?
- Polar bear
From year to year the polar bear’s “home” is shrinking faster due to global warming: the extent of glaciers decreases more every. The habitat reduction of this magnificent mammal is one of the many signals that the planet is sending out on climate change and that affects a symbol species of polar bear.
N°13: Which renewable energy source is abundant in Cyprus?
- Solar energy
- Wind energy
- Electrical energy
- Chemical energy
The sunlight is the primary form of solar energy. Basking in more than 3300 hours of sunlight per year, Cyprus has the highest solar power potential in the European Union but currently imports most if its energy.
N°14: Which animal is considered the symbol of Cyprus?
- Agrino (mouflon)
Agrino, due to its uniqueness, rarity and grace, is considered a symbol for Cyprus. In the Cypriot legislation it is defined as a strictly protected subspecies and is classified in Annex IV of the Habitats Directive of the European Union (92/43 – Habitats Directive) as a species that needs strict protection.
N°15: Which is the highest mountain in Cyprus?
Mount Olympus is 1,952 m
N°16: When did Cyprus adopt the euro?
Cyprus joined the European Union in 2004 and adopted the euro on 1 January 2008.
N°17: When did Cyprus get a €10 billion international bailout by the Eurogroup, European Commision (EC), European Central Bank (ECB) and International Monetary Fund (IMF)/Troika?
The Cyprus bailout captured the attention of the world, as it was the first and only bailout worldwide with a condition to impose a bail-in of bank deposits – a measure considered inconceivable until then.
N°18: Which is the most popular dive site in Cyprus?
- Lady Thetis
- Green Bay
- The Caves
Zenobia is rated one of the top ten wrecks dives in the world. MS Zenobia was a Swedish built Challenger-class RO-RO ferry launched in 1979 that capsized and sank in the Mediterranean sea, close to Larnaca, Cyprus, in June 1980 on her maiden voyage.
N°19: In which seaside town the Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta), lay their eggs and reproduced?
In Akamas, in Paphos, specifically in Lara Beach. There were many of them in bygone times and the government does much to preserve and protect these animals. Exploitation of turtles in the Mediterranean from the 1920s until about 1970 reduced the population dramatically.
N°20: Which is the major pillar of Cyprus’ economy?
- Cement and gypsum
- Petroleum refining
- Food and beverage processing
Tourism and maritime transportation are considered to be the two pillars of the Cypriot economy. The 2019 figures set an all-time record for number of tourists with almost 4 million. Cyprus has the eleventh largest shipping fleet in the world and the third largest in the European Union.
N°21: Why does Cyprus have high healthy standards?
- Weather and Free from major diseases
- Free from major diseases and Public/Private Health services
- Weather and Public Health Services
- Weather and Private Health Services
Cyprus has been almost free of many common infectious and parasitic diseases and has achieved significant progress in communicable disease control compared to the average rate of EU27. The healthcare system in Cyprus is of a high standard and recognised by the World Health Organisation to be on par with other developed countries. On the other hand, during the summer months, exposure to extreme weather conditions which prevail in Cyprus is one of the biggest risks to the safety, health and well being of workers.
N°22: Which theorem states that the sum of the squares on the legs of a right triangle is equal to the square on the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle)?
- Pythagorean theorem
- Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
- Prime Number Theorem
- Law of Quadratic Reciprocity
The theorem is named for the ancient Greek thinker Pythagoras.
N°23: What was the currency of Cyprus before the euro?
- Japanese Yen
- British Pound
The Cypriot pound was the official currency for Cyprus prior to its membership in the European Union (EU) from 1879 to 2007.
N°24: What is depicted on one-euro and two-euro coin in Cyprus?
- The ancient ship of Kyrenia
- The stones of Rome
- The cruciform figurine of Pomos
- The animal agrino (mouflon)
The sculpture represents a woman with her arms spread and was probably used as a fertility symbol. Many similar sculptures have been found on Cyprus. Smaller versions were worn as amulets around the neck, just as this idol wears (a small copy of) itself.
N°25: Who is the father of Mathematics?
Pythagoras was a Greek philosopher who made important developments in mathematics, astronomy, and the theory of music. The theorem now known as Pythagoras’s theorem was known to the Babylonians 1000 years earlier but he may have been the first to prove it.
N°26: Euclid (325-265 BC) was famous for…?
- His works in philosophy
- His works in geometry
- His monuments in Alexandria, Egypt
- His public discourses during the Peloponnese war
Euclid was an ancient Greek mathematician in Alexandria, Egypt. Due to his groundbreaking work in math, he is often referred to as the ‘Father of Geometry’. Euclid’s most well-known collection of works, called Elements, outlines some of the most fundamental principles of geometry. Euclid’s theorem is a fundamental statement in number theory that asserts that there are infinitely many prime numbers. It was first proved by Euclid. There are several proofs of the theorem.
N°27: The Hippocratic Oath is taken by?
- Social workers
- Paramedical staff
The Hippocratic Oath is an oath of ethics historically taken by physicians. It is one of the most widely known of Greek medical texts. In its original form, it requires a new physician to swear, by a number of healing gods, to uphold specific ethical standards. The oath is the earliest expression of medical ethics in the Western world, establishing several principles of medical ethics which remain of paramount significance today. These include the principles of medical confidentiality and non-maleficence.
N°28: Who wrote the “History of animals” one of the greatest texts of biology?
Aristotle, the Greek ancient philosopher who had studied at Plato’s Academy in Athens and died in 322 BC wrote the History of Animals during the fourth century BC, where he wrote down his observations about animals. He heavily influenced zoologists for years by classifying animals according to their different characteristics. Later Greek scientists continued Aristotle’s work by studying and classifying plants.
N°29: Who was one of the world’s first famous female mathematicians from Greece?
Hypatia (born c. 350–370; died 415 AD) was a Hellenistic Neoplatonist philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician, who lived in Alexandria, Egypt, then part of the Eastern Roman Empire. She was a prominent thinker of the Neoplatonic school in Alexandria where she taught philosophy and astronomy. She was head of the Greek mathematics school in Alexandria and she is the earliest female mathematician of whose life and work reasonably detailed knowledge exists.
N°30: Which of the following is one of the most important inventions made by Greek scientists?
The Greeks invented the two main components of watermills, the waterwheel and toothed gearing, and used, along with the Romans, undershot, overshot and breastshot waterwheel mills. The earliest evidence of a water-driven wheel appears in the technical treatises Pneumatica and Parasceuastica of the Greek engineer Philo of Byzantium (ca. 280−220 BC)
N°31: The word “mathematics” is of…?
- Greek origin
- Latin origin
- Egyptian origin
- None of the above
The word “mathematics” derives from the ancient Greek “μάθημα” (mathema), meaning “subject of instruction”. Ancient Greek mathematics was developed from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD by Greek speaking peoples along the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean. The period following Alexander the Great is sometimes referred to as Hellenistic mathematics. The use of generalized mathematical theories and proofs is the key difference between Greek mathematics and those of preceding civilizations.
N°32: The beginning of the Greek astronomy is attributed to……?
- Aristarchus of Samos
- Thales of Miletus
- Anaximenes of Miletus
Thales of Miletus (624/623 – c. 548/545 BC) was a Greek mathematician, astronomer and pre-Socratic philosopher from Miletus in Ionia, Asia Minor. He was the first person to investigate the basic principles, the question of the originating substances of matter and, therefore, as the founder of the school of natural philosophy. He proposed theories to explain many of the events of nature, the primary substance, the support of the earth, and the cause of change. Thales was much involved in the problems of astronomy and provided a number of explanations of cosmological events which traditionally involved supernatural entities. His questioning approach to the understanding of heavenly phenomena was the beginning of Greek astronomy.
N°33: What is photosynthesis?
- a medieval disease
- a lab-virus
- a natural process
- a computer antivirus
Photosynthesis, which derives from the Greek words: ‘photo’, which means ‘light’, and ‘synthesis’, which means ‘making’ or ‘building’ is the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize nutrients from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a by-product. Photosynthesis is important to living organisms because it is the number one source of oxygen in the atmosphere. … Green plants and trees use photosynthesis to make food from sunlight, carbon dioxide and water in the atmosphere: It is their primary source of energy.
N°34: Τhe “Eratosthenes experiment” concerns the calculation of:
- the circumference of the earth
- the earth-moon distance
- the speed of light
- the number π
Eratosthenes of Cyrene (276 B.C. – 194 B.C.) is best known for being the first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth. With a simple experiment he managed to estimate that the meridian of the earth has a length of 252.000 stadia, with an error on the real value between −2.4% and +0.8% (assuming a value for the stadion between 155 and 160 metres).
N°35: The Pap test is a method of laboratory investigation used to detect:
- potentially pre-cancerous and cancerous conditions in the female cervix
- papillary thyroid cancer
- pathological cholesterol in the blood
- the existence of an allergic reaction to papaya
The Pap test was invented in the early 1950s and is named after the eminent Greek doctor, Georgios Papanikolaou (3 May 1883 – 19 February 1962) who was a pioneer in cytopathology and early cancer detection. The Pap test ensures early diagnosis of cervical cancer and the salvation of millions of women around the world.
N°36: In what kind of triangle is the Pythagorean Theorem applied?
- Right triangle
- Acute triangle
- Obtuse triangle
- Equilateral triangle
The Pythagorean Theorem in mathematics is a relation of Euclidean geometry between the sides of a Right triangle. According to the Pythagorean Theorem, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the two perpendicular sides. Τhe great philosopher and mathematician of ancient Greece, Pythagoras was born on the Greek island of Samos and founded a famous school in south Italy (city of Krotonas).
N°37: Who is Christian Doppler?
- A football player
- A classic composer
- A physicist
- An actor
In 1842 the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler discovered the so called “Doppler effect” – how the observed frequency of sound and light waves is affected by the relative motion of the source and detector. When wave energy like sound or radio waves travels from two objects, the wavelength can seem to be changed if one or both of them are moving. For example, when an ambulance passes with its siren blaring, you hear the pitch of the siren change: as it approaches, the siren’s pitch sounds higher than when it is moving away from you. This change is a common physical demonstration of the Doppler effect. It is applied in astronomy, meteorology, medicine.
N°38: When were the main blood types first distinguished?
In 1900 an Austrian biologist Karl Landsteiner distinguished the main blood types, thus developing the modern system of classification of blood types, which later on contributed to transfuse blood without endangering the patient´s life. Karl Landsteiner was described as the father of transfusion medicine.
N°39: Where was the oldest human mummy in Europe found?
The best-preserved Stone Age man in the world was found in the Ötzi Valley in Austria. Ötzi, also called the Iceman, is the natural mummy of a man who lived between 3400 and 3100 BCE. The mummy was found in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps. He is Europe’s oldest known natural human mummy and has offered an unprecedented view of Chalcolithic (Copper Age) Europeans. His body and belongings are displayed in the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy.
N°40: Who is the father of modern genetics?
- A monk
- A farmer
- A teacher
- A doctor
The “father of modern genetics” Gregor Mendel was a scientist, meteorologist, mathematician, biologist, Augustinian friar and abbot He became famous for his experiments with pea plants. Though farmers had known for millennia that crossbreeding of animals and plants could favor certain desirable traits, Mendel’s pea plant experiments conducted between 1856 and 1863 established many of the rules of heredity, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance
N°41: What did Joseph Madersperger invent?
- The compass
- The sewing machine
- The printing press
- The plow
The sewing machine was invented by the Austrian Josef Madersperger. n 1814 he presented his first sewing machine, which imitated a human hand. After several unsuccessful attempts to improve the sewing machine, in 1839 he built a machine imitating the weaving process using the chain stitch. Madersperger was out of money, so he could not set up a factory. He donated the prototype to the Imperial–royal Polytechnical Institute
N°42: Where is the Kaplan turbine used?
- Ship building
- Power production
The Kaplan turbine is a propeller-type water turbine which has adjustable blades. It was developed in 1913 by Austrian professor Viktor Kaplan. Kaplan turbines are now widely used throughout the world for electrical power production.
N°43: Where was the slow-motion technique first presented?
- Venice, Italy
- Berlin, Germany
- Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
- Graz, Austria
Professor August Musger was an Austrian priest and physicist who is best remembered for his invention of slow motion. It is an effect in film-making where time appears to be slowed down. In the early 20th century he invented the slow motion technique by using a mirrored drum as a synchronizing mechanism. The device he used was patented in 1904 and was first presented in Graz in 1907.
N°44: Who discovered the radiation penetrating the atmosphere from outer space, a.k.a cosmic rays?
- Nicolaus Copernicus
- Edwin Hubble
- Victor Hess
- Edmond Halley
Victor Franz Hess was an Austrian physicist, and Nobel laureate in physics, who discovered cosmic rays. For many years, scientists had been puzzled by the levels of ionizing radiation measured in the atmosphere. The assumption at the time was that the radiation would decrease as the distance from the earth, the then assumed source of the radiation, increased. But, measurement of the radiation indicated that at greater altitude in the atmosphere the level of radiation might actually be higher than that on the ground. Hess approached by personally taking the equipment need aloft in a balloon. He systematically measured the radiation at altitudes up to 5.3 km during 1911-12. The daring flights were made both at day and during the night, at significant risk to himself. The level of radiation decreased up to an altitude of about 1 km, but above that the level increased considerably, with the radiation detected at 5 km being about twice that at sea level. His conclusion was that there was radiation penetrating the atmosphere from outer space, and his discovery was confirmed by Robert Andrews Millikan in 1925, who gave the radiation the name cosmic rays.
N°45: Where is drum memory used?
In 1932, in Austria, Gustav Tauschek invented the drum memory, which was a magnetic data storage device and an early form of computer memory, which plays an important role in the computer memory development. Tauschek was a genius self-taught Viennese engineer, who besides the drum-memory, invented also many devices and systems for the punch-card machinery, as well as the first OCR (Optical Character Recognition) machine.
N°46: Who invented the first snow globe?
- A wood craftsman
- A maker of surgical tools
- A toy maker
- A glass craftsman
A snow globe is a transparent sphere, traditionally made of glass, enclosing a miniaturized scene of some sort. The sphere also encloses the water in the globe; the water serves as the medium through which the “snow” falls. At the end of the 19th century the Austrian Erwin Perzy, a producer of surgical instruments, wanted to make an extra bright lightsource to use as a surgical lamp. He tried to intensify the candlepower of a so-called Schusterkugel (a water filled flask used to focus light since the Middle Ages) with particles made out of different materials for reflection purpose, the effect reminded him of snowfall and it’s said that by this he got the idea for a snow globe. He then built his first actual globe with the basilica of Mariazell as a model in it.
N°47: What is the Rumpler Tropfenwagen?
- Sports equipment for climbing
- A machine used in industry
- A car
- A castle
The Rumpler Tropfenwagen was the first streamlined production car developed by the Austrian engineer Edmund Rumpler. He introduced the first production car with an aerodynamic design in 1921 at the Berlin car show, featuring the world’s first (single plane) curved windows. Both the windscreen and the side windows were significantly curved. It sold poorly, with only 100 cars being built, and they were mainly used as taxis.
N°48: Who was Hedy Lamarr?
- An actress
- An engineer
- A mathematician
- All of the above
Austrian-American actress Hedy Lamarr was a famous movie star. But, also a gifted mathematician and engineer, and when World War II broke out, she wanted to make a contribution to the war effort by improving torpedo technology. Working with musician and composer George Antheil, Lamarr developed the idea of “frequency hopping,” which could encrypt torpedo control signals, preventing enemies from jamming them and sending the torpedoes off course. Although Lamarr and Antheil were granted a patent for the idea in 1942, the US Navy ignored their technology for 20 years, finally putting it to use during a 1962 blockade of Cuba.
N°49: What is one of the most common snacks in Portugal?
- French Fries
- Lupini beans
Lupini beans are yellow legume seeds and are traditionally eaten as a pickled snack food. In Portugal, it is available in almost every restaurant, coffee place and supermarkets. They are considered a healthy snack takin into consideration the high levels of fiber, vitamins and protein.
N°50: What is probably the most popular fish dish in Portugal?
Codfish (bacalhau) is probably the most popular fish dish in Portugal. The Portuguese have been eating bacalhau since the 16th century. It is eaten baked, barbecued, canned, with potatoes, with rice, and so many other ways. It is arguably the most popular dish on Christmas Eve but is eaten all year round. There are, at least, 1000 recipes to prepare it and the most know recipes are: Bacalhau à Brás, Bacalhau à Gomes de Sá, Bacalhau com Natas, Pataniscas de Bacalhau and Bolinhos de Bacalhau.
N°51: Branca Edmée Marques, born in 1899, was a leading Portuguese specialist in:
- Nuclear technology
Edmée Marques was a Portuguese leading nuclear technology specialist who obtained a doctorate in Paris under the guidance of Marie Curie (who was a Nobel Prize in Physics). She returned to Lisbon and founded the Radiochemistry Laboratory, where she continued her research for three decades. The Laboratory led to the Centre for Radiochemistry Studies of the Nuclear Energy Studies Commission.
N°52: António Damasio is a Portuguese-American:
António Damasio is a neuroscientist that was born in Lisbon (Portugal) and lives in Los Angeles (USA). He has made seminal contributions to the understanding of brain processes underlying emotions, feelings, and consciousness. His work on the role of affect in decision-making has made a major impact in neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy. In 2017, he was designated member of the Council of State of Portugal and he is also a Professor at the University of Southern California.
Nº53: Where can you observe dolphins in Portugal?
- Sado Estuary
- All of the above
The Azores are home to a lot of dolphin species and one of the top destinations in the world. Professionals come to photograph dolphins in their natural habitat. Sado Estuary (south of Lisbon) is home of a few dozen dolphins and are a regular attraction. The Madeiran waters are very rich in cetaceans (aquatic mammals such as dolphins and whales), with at least 22 species recorded.
Nº 54: How much is the gender pay gap (difference between earnings of male and female employees) in Portugal?
According to the Eurostat (Directorate-General of the European Commission responsible to provide statistical information), the gender pay gap in 2018 in Portugal was around 16%. This means that women earn 16% less than men. This value is calculated for companies with 10 or more employees.
Nº 55: Azores is a Portuguese archipelago that has still nine active volcanos. One of the most touristic phenomenon of volcanic activity in the region is:
A geyser is a spring characterized by an intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam. In Azores, these are surrounded by tropical vegetation. The geysers at Furnas (the name of the location) are situated at the crater of one of the most active volcanoes of the islands and are a must-see if you visit Azores.
Nº 56: What is the highest mountain in Portugal?
- Serra da Estrela
- Pico Ruivo
- Pico da Nevosa
- Montanha do Pico
The Mount Pico is located on Pico Island, in the mid-Atlantic archipelago of the Azores. It is the highest mountain of Portugal, at approximately 2,350 meters above sea level. It is also one of the highest Atlantic mountains. Serra da Estrela is the highest mountain in Continental Portugal (only the mainland country) at almost 2000 meters.
Nº 57: One of the finest stretches of protected coast in Europe is located in the south west part of Portugal. The name of the coastal strip is known as:
- Costa Nova do Prado
- Costa de Prata
- Costa Vincentina
- São Jacinto Dunes Nature Reserve
Costa Vincentina is part of the Natural Park that starts further north in the Southwest Alentejo and is the longest stretch of protected Portuguese coast. It is different from the south of Portugal (Algarve). The area preserved nature has a strong, wild character, creating landscapes of breathtaking majesty. It covers around 100 km of natural habitat.
Nº 58: The Portuguese National Space Agency was founded in:
Portugal Space is a private non-profit organisation and was created by the Portuguese Government in March 2019. The Agency’s primary purpose is to promote and strengthen Space in Portugal, its ecosystem and value chain, for the benefit of society and economy in the country and worldwide. It coordinates the Portuguese participation in the European Space Agency (ESA).
Nº 59: Egas Moniz became the first Portuguese national to receive a Nobel Prize in 1949. He was a:
Egas Moniz was a Portuguese neurologist and the developer of cerebral angiography. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern psychosurgery. He was born in 1874 and died at the age of 81.
Nº 60: If we include the maritime area of Portugal, how much of that area is water?
The exclusive economic zone of Portugal totalizes 1 727 408 square kilometers, mostly because of the archipelagoes of Azores and Madeira that are located in the Atlantic Ocean. In terms of land, it has only around 92 000 square kilometers. The ocean area is about 19 times the land area.